Adam Smith e David Hume: utilitaristas fora de tempo – Samuel Santana

Adam Smith e David Hume: utilitaristas fora de tempo – Samuel Santana

Adam Smith e David Hume: utilitaristas fora de tempo

Samuel Santana

 

“Não é da benevolência do padeiro, do açougueiro ou do cervejeiro que eu espero que saia o meu jantar, mas sim do empenho deles em promover seu ‘auto-interesse’.”

-Adam Smith

 

Quando pensamos sobre o utilitarismo, frequentemente o que nos vêm em mente são as formulações dessa ideia legadas por Jeremy Bentham, James Mill e seu filho John Stuart Mill. No entanto, pouco se fala de dois importantes precursores desses últimos e do próprio utilitarismo. São eles: David Hume e Adam Smith.

O utilitarismo foi formulado por Bentham (1748-1832) como uma teoria moral (ética) que associa a ideia do bem como sendo o útil, ou seja: são boas aquelas ações que promovem e maximizam o bem-estar, ou felicidade, dos indivíduos em geral e evitam e/ou minimizam o sofrimento destes. A máxima de Cesare Beccaria (1764): “a felicidade máxima dividida pelo maior número de pessoas” seria o princípio fundamental do utilitarismo. Portanto, conforme essa ética, a conduta preferível é sempre aquela que mais gerar prazer e mais evitar dor ao maior número de indivíduos.

Como uma ilustração, imaginemos o dilema do bonde: estamos no comando de um bonde sem freios que corre em direção a cinco pessoas amarradas nos trilhos, assim, se o bonde seguir seu curso, acabará atropelando-as e matando-as. Porém, à nossa frente há uma alavanca que pode mudar o curso do bonde, colocando-o em um caminho diferente e salvando àquelas cinco pessoas. Todavia, nesse outro trilho encontra-se também amarrada uma única pessoa, e mover a alavanca para salvar as cinco pessoas implica em matar esse outro indivíduo. Diante desse dilema o estudante já deve imaginar qual seria a resposta do utilitarista: o maior número de pessoas deve sobreviver em face do sacrifício de uma única. O cálculo é simples, atropelar uma pessoa geraria menos dor e, por isso, mais bem-estar que atropelar cinco. Nisso consiste o utilitarismo.

Esta suposta capacidade de calcularmos a priori as maneiras de maximizar o bem-estar e reduzir o sofrimento levou certos pensadores utilitaristas, entre eles o próprio pai desta teoria, Bentham, a defenderem um modelo de governo em que legisladores pudessem eles mesmos realizar tal cálculo e, através da máquina estatal, serem os pivôs da felicidade de uma sociedade inteira. Essa é a razão pela qual tal teoria tornou-se popular nas constituições de nações pelo mundo inteiro e mesmo na brasileira de 1988, pois conceder ao Estado o poder-dever de promover o bem-estar geral com suas próprias “mãos” é dar a ele o aval para crescer e intervir cada vez mais na liberdade individual. É também por essa mesma razão que o liberalismo clássico e o libertarianismo do século XX buscaram distanciar-se do utilitarismo, ao menos de sua modalidade que é formulada dessa forma.

Pouco tempo mais tarde, o afilhado de Bentham, John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), dá uma cara nova à teoria de seu padrinho acrescentado pelo menos dois novos pontos.

Primeiramente, ao mensurar a conduta preferível em relação à sua utilidade, além do cálculo quantitativo com respeito ao prazer gerado e à dor evitada, da durabilidade desses sentimentos e do número de indivíduos beneficiados, também deveria ser levada em conta a qualidade do prazer promovido. Para Mill, existiriam prazeres superiores (ou inteligíveis) como a boa educação, a filantropia, a atividade científica etc., qualitativamente preferíveis  aos prazeres inferiores (ou sensíveis) como o comer, o beber, o sexo, o descanso etc. Mesmo que o valor desses não seja desprezível, ainda assim, segundo Mill (1861) é melhor “ser um Sócrates doente que um porco satisfeito”. Com isso, o peso desses prazeres inteligíveis no cálculo do bem-estar é qualitativamente maior que dos sensíveis.

Em segundo lugar, Mill acrescenta ao utilitarismo o princípio do dano, segundo o qual cada indivíduo tem o direito de agir como quiser, desde que suas ações não prejudiquem os demais. Assim, em condutas que afetem diretamente apenas ao próprio agente, a sociedade não tem nenhuma legitimidade em intervir. Esse princípio então postula que cada indivíduo é soberano sobre si mesmo, sobre seu corpo e sua mente. Como consequência, de forma claramente mais liberal que seu padrinho, Mill ergue sobre esse princípio o direito à liberdade de cada um de promover seu próprio bem-estar sem danificar a busca por bem-estar de todos os outros. Portanto, nessa versão do utilitarismo o Estado assume outro papel: o de estabelecer e manter um sistema de regras de justiça que possibilite a todos o exercício dessa liberdade. Essa visão foi fortemente influente no pensamento liberal do século XX.

O primeiro desses dois, Bentham, toma uma posição racionalista ao supor ser possível a um governante saber de antemão os rumos a tomar para promover a felicidade da sociedade em geral. Essa posição certamente decepcionaria seus antecessores, David Hume (1711-1776) e Adam Smith (1723-1790), dois grandes pensadores do Iluminismo Escocês.

. . .

Ora, durante a modernidade, a forma de liberalismo que predominava na Europa continental era de um forte viés racionalista, romântico e revolucionário, especialmente na França, com as ideias políticas de Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). O ânimo para romper com o Antigo Regime e com as instituições historicamente estabelecidas crescia entre os liberais continentais; estes almejavam construir de maneira revolucionária um novo sistema social baseado apenas na razão, destruindo as coisas como estavam (status quo) e trazendo uma nova ordem social de liberdade que funcionaria do modo que eles próprios haviam planejado. Tais ideias culminaram na Revolução Francesa de 1789.

A intenção desses liberais pode ter sido das melhores, mas isso não os livrou das críticas conservadoras, especialmente as feitas por Edmund Burke (1729-1797). Havia também uma diferença contrastante entre o liberalismo francês revolucionário e o liberalismo da Revolução Gloriosa (1688-89) que advinha de uma corrente diferente, ambientada na Grã-Bretanha e posteriormente no Estados Unidos. Essa tradição, conhecida como “Old Whig”, se assemelhava muito mais ao conservadorismo do que ao próprio liberalismo continental racionalista, pois, ao contrário deste último, os liberais britânicos tendiam a valorizar mais as tradições e costumes considerados benéficos, os quais, segundo eles, seriam o resultado não-intencional de uma ordem espontânea decorrente das relações sociais livres. Assim, eram contrários a concepções que elevavam indevidamente a razão à posição de planejadora de uma ordem social liberal. No entanto, esse pensamento não implica que tal corrente era completamente conservadora (aproximam-se mais de uma posição liberal-conservadora, na verdade), ela era, isso sim, crítica do regime de seu tempo e de tudo o que era hostil à liberdade, porém não pregava uma revolução radical, antes uma mudança corretiva e gradual das instituições.

Entre os pensadores dessa tradição estava um dos precursores do utilitarismo de Bentham e Mill, David Hume, um grande filósofo escocês e proponente do empirismo cético. A teoria moral de Hume, proposta como uma teoria ligeiramente descritiva, embora não tenha levado o nome de utilitarismo, em muito se assemelhou com este, a ponto de podermos posicioná-la como uma antecessora dos utilitaristas.

Hume rejeita o que mais tarde Bentham veio a defender, a saber, a ideia de que a razão seria capaz de determinar a boa conduta moral através do cálculo da utilidade, isso porque era profundamente anti-racionalista e colocou o fundamento da moral nas paixões, emoções e sentimentos. Assim, Hume defende que a razão é incapaz de definir o mal e o bem, e de determinar os fins da vontade, já que esta é sempre determinada por um motivo baseado em um sentimento, e para a razão resta a tarefa de guiá-la à realização de seus fins. Por isso, antes mesmo de Mill, Hume demonstrou haver sentimentos e prazeres qualitativamente distintos: quando, por exemplo, tomo um vinho, experimento um prazer puramente hedonístico, e quando escuto uma boa música, experimento um prazer estético. Consequentemente, quando um observador presencia uma atitude com uma certa ‘propriedade’ moral (uma atitude virtuosa), ele experimenta um prazer peculiar que o impele à louvá-la; assim também no caso de um vício, o observador sente uma aversão que o impele à censurá-lo. Esses são os sentimentos que fundamentam a moral, e uma conduta verifica-se como certa ou errada conforme desperta tais sentimentos em um observador desinteressado.

Ao contrário de outras teorias morais que tentaram prescrever, através de uma razão desajudada, como o homem deveria ser, Hume mostra que é através de um processo natural do entendimento que selecionamos as regras de conduta apropriadas para uma convivência social harmoniosa e duradoura. Inevitavelmente, sua teoria leva a uma forma de consequencialismo utilitarista, uma vez que, ao invés de prescrever deveres objetivos, ela apenas direciona o entendimento a encontrar maneiras de acordo com as quais os homens devam maximizar melhor seus próprios interesses subjetivos.

Ao contrário dos sistemas éticos racionalistas, o utilitarismo de Hume não consiste em prescrever uma tábua de deveres baseados na razão. Ele deixa claro que a razão é incapaz dessa tarefa. Antes, sua teoria busca reconhecer o devido valor das instituições e das leis que surgem espontaneamente na sociedade e são direcionadas ao bem público.

Seu utilitarismo reconhece que essas instituições e leis (como o Estado de Direito, o sistema Common Law e o livre-comércio), que formam e possibilitam a estrutura da sociedade, não foram racionalmente construídas e planejadas por seres morais que visavam o bem comum. Pelo contrário: essas e outras instituições que são úteis, uma vez que maximizam a liberdade e o bem-estar da sociedade, têm sua real origem na busca de cada indivíduo pelos seus próprios interesses; é no amor-de-si de cada indivíduo que está a gênese das mais louváveis instituições sociais.

Até mesmo as próprias leis que restringem a conduta humana e evitam uma busca hostil do próprio interesse nascem como resultado espontâneo das relações de muitos indivíduos, cada um buscando promover seus próprios fins. Por exemplo: a propriedade privada, os direitos e obrigações dos contratos, bem como a estabilidade das posses, a transferência destas por consenso e a eficácia das promessas, todas essas regras foram instituídas de maneira não planejada pela necessidade de vários indivíduos em terem êxito na promoção do próprio bem-estar, enquanto consideram o fato de habitarem um mundo de recursos escassos.

A inovação de Hume está em romper com um velho paradigma que dividia a realidade em um mundo dos fenômenos naturais existentes independente dos homens (tal como o clima, as leis da natureza, etc.) e outro mundo dos fenômenos convencionais, que existem como resultado da vontade humana (como a constituição da república, por exemplo). Ele quebra essa dualidade demonstrando haver um terceiro mundo, um mundo de fenômenos que não são puramente naturais, pois não existem independente dos homens, e que muito menos são convencionais, pois não são estabelecidos pela vontade humana, antes surgem como resultado não-intencional da busca de muitos indivíduos por seus próprios fins e paixões. Essa busca resulta em leis de justiça (negativas) que, embora sejam artificiais comparadas aos sentimentos naturais da condição humana, são, ao estarem baseadas nesses sentimentos, tão naturais quanto aquelas leis naturais que os racionalistas éticos tentaram propor. Entender cada uma dessas instituições e reconhecer sua utilidade e devido valor, a fim de conservá-las e aperfeiçoá-las apenas de forma gradual, é no que consiste a visão utilitária de David Hume.

Adam Smith, contemporâneo de Hume, também escocês e pertencente à mesma tradição liberal, igualmente reconhece a utilidade dessas instituições e dá um destaque ainda maior ao processo natural de auto-correção da sociedade. Porém, o que destacamos aqui é que embora a natureza ocupe um papel mais substancial em sua teoria do fundamento dos juízos morais, o que aproxima Smith de liberais mais jusnaturalistas nessa área é o caráter utilitarista de sua filosofia social.

Partindo de tudo o que dissemos sobre as concepções de Hume acerca dos processos naturais, Smith demonstra em suas duas grandes obras, A Riqueza das Nações (1780) e Teoria dos Sentimentos Morais (1790), que o processo de autocorreção tende a trazer harmonia e auto-equilíbrio social e econômico, e que, não sendo esse processo produto da razão e dos desígnios humanos, mas (seguindo Hume) de impulsos automáticos, qualquer desarmonia e perturbação nele normalmente é resultado de intervencionismos.

Smith nos traz, então, o conceito de Mão Invisível, um processo natural de mercado onde a busca pelo auto-interesse de cada um promove o bem-estar geral; o amor-de-si de vários indivíduos, que levá-os em busca de seu próprio bem-estar numa sociedade de mercado, funciona como se fosse guiado por uma entidade invisível para a maximização da felicidade da sociedade inteira. Assim, o sapateiro não busca melhorar a qualidade de seus sapatos e nem abaixar seus preços porque “ama” seus clientes, mas porque ama a si mesmo e por isso deseja aumentar suas vendas através da satisfação de sua clientela, maximizando assim a felicidade desta como consequência não-intencional de suas ações. A mão invisível prossegue atuando no mercado através também da concorrência entre os agentes; assim, o sapateiro que quer aumentar suas vendas vê-se em confronto com outro sapateiro que vende sapatos mais baratos e melhores, tendo então que maximizar a produção e diminuir seu custo, a fim de melhorar a qualidade dos sapatos e diminuir os preços – aquele que consegue ter o menor custo para produzir um produto tem a chamada vantagem absoluta. A fim de maximizar a produção, o sapateiro pode também dividir o trabalho de confeccionar sapatos em diversas tarefas pequenas, montando uma linha produtiva com vários trabalhadores, cada um realizando uma dessas tarefas, o que aprimora largamente a produção até que a oferta entre em equilíbrio com a demanda e cada vez mais indivíduos possam adquirir sapatos por preços cada vez menores, bem como outros produtos desejados. Nisso consiste o processo de maximização da felicidade de todos, realizado pela mão invisível no mercado.

Por fim, Hume e Smith, inseridos na tradição liberal-conservadora, demonstram a necessidade de preservar e aprimorar essas instituições espontaneamente constituídas para que tenhamos uma ordem social liberal. Sendo assim, o papel do Estado fica sendo somente o de manter leis (negativas) que assegurem a existência dessas instituições e o de administrar a justiça a fim de que o indivíduo possa buscar seu auto-interesse em concordância com a mesma busca por todos os outros indivíduos.

 

Referências

BARRY, Norman P., On classical liberalism and libertarianism. 175 Fifth Avenue, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987.

REALE, Giovanni, História da filosofia: de Spinoza a Kant, v. 4. São Paulo:
Paulus. 2005.

_____, Giovanni, História da filosofia, 5: do romantismo ao empiriocriticismo. São Paulo: Paulus, 2005.

FRANCA, Victor,  A conciliação necessária entre as tradições Old Whig e Racionalista do Liberalismo. 2019.

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