[Coluna] Sobre a metafísica aristotélica – Lucas P. Lima

[Coluna] Sobre a metafísica aristotélica – Lucas P. Lima

O que é “Metafísica”? Para obter uma resposta a essa pergunta, primeiro devemos entender os tipos de ciência e cada classe dela. Em primeiro lugar, para Aristóteles, existem três tipos de ciências: a teorética, a prática e a poiética. A poiética ocupa-se do saber responsável pela produção de determinados objetos para fins úteis ao homem — por exemplo, as engenharias. A prática busca o conhecimento para, através dele, obter a perfeição moral. Temos como exemplo a ética (no sentido aristotélico) e a política. E a teorética, que busca o saber em si mesmo. No entanto, a ciência teorética divide-se em mais três classes: a física, a matemática e a teologia.

A mais superior das ciências é a teorética e, das teoréticas, a de maior importância é a teologia — dado que ela trata do mais importante aspecto da realidade, segundo Aristóteles.

As quatro causas

Sabendo que a preocupação da metafísica é descobrir o princípio primeiro e as causas da realidade, devemos entender quais e quantas são essas causas, que segundo Aristóteles são quatro: causa formal (forma de determinado objeto/ser), causa material (matéria que constitui o objeto/ser), causa eficiente (o que faz algo vir a ser, exemplificando: seus pais são a causa eficiente que lhe trouxeram à vida) e a causa final (finalidade do ser/objeto, por exemplo: o objetivo da faca é cortar; o do cão é ser guardião ou latir). As duas primeiras causas explicam o que é o ser, as duas últimas explicam a transformação do ser.

Agora, o que é o ser? Ora, o ser é a substância. Mas o que é isso de substância, afinal?

No sentido impróprio, a substância é a matéria e o sínolo (junção de matéria e forma); mas, por excelência, o ser é a forma.

Vale ressaltar que matéria é potencialidade indeterminada, podendo tornar-se determinada se receber uma determinação por meio da forma (bronze). A forma é o constitutivo intrínseco da própria coisa (formato de um homem). E sínolo é a união de matéria e forma, como dito anteriormente (unificando o bronze e o formato de um homem, temos como resultado uma estátua).

Ato e potência

Segundo o princípio do movimento, tudo no cosmos está repleto de potência (mudança em alguma coisa distinta da coisa mudada ou nela enquanto outra). Um exemplo de potência ausente da coisa mudada são os pedreiros na construção de uma casa, na qual os materiais, através da potência de trabalho aplicada neles, vem a se tornar essa casa. Já um exemplo de potência enquanto outra, temos a medicina, a qual pode estar presente no paciente ainda que não enquanto paciente. Isto é, um paciente ao consumir um remédio, passa do estado “doente” ao estado “sadio”, afirmando que o princípio da mudança está presente no paciente, ainda que não seja ele próprio.

Existe também a impotência, que pode impedir a potencialidade de um determinado objeto/ser vir a efetivar-se. Na impotência, existe a possível (quando o contrário não é necessariamente falso) e a impossível (o contrário é necessariamente verídico).

Na impotência possível, tomemos como exemplo o experimento do gato de Schrödinger, na qual a chance do gato estar vivo ou morto no final da experiência é exatamente 50%, ou seja, a mesma. Caso o cientista abra a caixa e se depara com o gato vivo, isso não necessariamente significa que o contrário é falso, ou seja, impotência possível.

Já no caso da impotência impossível, temos como exemplo o lado de um quadrado, que não pode ser em hipótese alguma maior que a diagonal. Nesse caso, se temos um quadrado com 2cm de lado, ao considerar os seus tamanhos para encontrar a diagonal, temos o seguinte cálculo: D2: 2^2 + 2^2 = D2: 4+4 = D: 8 = D2: ✓8 = D2: 2,82. O tamanho da diagonal é 2,82, e isso vale para todos os quadrados. Portanto, sendo impossível que a diagonal de um quadrado seja menor que os lados, então o contrário é necessariamente impossível; logo, impotência impossível.

Já o ato, é o princípio de onde a potência se originou; por exemplo: a árvore é o ato da potência da semente. Contudo, mesmo que a germinação da semente e o crescimento da árvore requeira tempo para que se mostrasse enquanto tal num determinado momento, a árvore já se encontra em potência na semente. Para não cairmos em regressão infinita, devemos assumir que existe um ato puro destituído de qualquer potência, um primeiro motor. Assumindo uma justificativa aristotélica: “Do exposto anteriormente, fica evidente que o necessário é também o atual e que o atual é anterior ao potencial na medida em que o eterno é anterior.” (Organon, p. 111).

Por Lucas P. Lima

Bibliografia

ARISTÓTELES. Metafísica. Tradução do português, textos adicionais e notas de Edson BINI. São Paulo: Edipro, 2012.

ARISTÓTELES.  Organon. Tradução do português, textos adicionais e notas de Edson BINI. São Paulo: Edipro, 3. Ed., 2016.

Este post tem 37 comentários

  1. After looking over a number of the blog posts on your website, I seriously like your way
    of writing a blog. I saved as a favorite it to my bookmark
    site list and will be checking back soon. Please visit my web site
    too and let me know your opinion.

  2. Ƭhanks for yoսr excellent informаtion. Тhey aгe verү helpful.

    Haѵe ɑ look at my web site Physic reading

  3. blindfolded, slut, wifeblindfolded, slutsblindfolded, son, step, mom, sucksblindfolded, spandex, slut, vidsdgetblindfolded, squirtingblindfolded, step, dadblindfolded, step, daughterblindfolded, step, mom,
    and, sonblindfolded, stepfatherblindfolded, stepmomblindfolded, stepmom, tricked, by, son, shower, krissyblindfolded, straight, girl,
    dont, know, its, a, lesbian, licking, herblindfolded,
    straight, girl, dont, know, its, a, lesbian, licking, her, blindfolded, threesomeblindfolded, straponblindfolded, sucking, bbcblindfolded,
    sult, kassondra, raine, getsblindfolded, surpriseblindfolded,
    surprise, birthdayblindfolded, surprise, blowjobsblindfolded, surprise, girlfriendblindfolded, surprise, greedy, facefuckblindfolded, surprise, momblindfolded, surprise,
    partyblindfolded, surprise, pornblindfolded, surprise,
    sex, momblindfolded, surprise, switchblindfolded, surprise, threesome, mmfblindfolded, surprise, twoblindfolded,
    surprise, video, 3blindfolded, surprise, with, his, momblindfolded, surprisedblindfolded, swallowblindfolded, swap, trickblindfolded,
    swingblindfolded, swinger, porn, germanblindfolded, swingersblindfolded, switched,
    tied, unknowingblindfolded, switched, wife, unknowingblindfolded,
    switched, wife, unknowing, trickedblindfolded, taken, outblindfolded, taste, spermblindfolded,
    teenblindfolded, teen, go, blackblindfolded, teen,
    shyblindfolded, teen, tricked, and, fuckblindfolded, theaterblindfolded, then, friend, swapsblindfolded, threesomeblindfolded, thresomeblindfolded, thressomeblindfolded,
    tied, openblindfolded, tied, to, bed, stripped,
    druggedblindfolded, tied, to, bed, vibrator, forcedblindfolded,
    tied, to, bed, vibrator, forced, orgasmblindfolded, tied, to, bed, vibrator, forced, orgasm, squirtblindfolded,
    tied, up, girl, trick, bbcblindfolded, tit, smotherblindfolded, trick, bfblindfolded,
    trickedblindfolded, tricked, bbcblindfolded, tricked, cock, switchblindfolded, tricked, creampieblindfolded, tricked, doesnt, know, switchedblindfolded,
    tricked, girlfriendblindfolded, tricked, interracial, gangbangblindfolded, tricked, pervertblindfolded, tricked, pornblindfolded, tricked, stranger,
    realblindfolded, tricked, switched, lesbianblindfolded, tricked,
    wife, girlfriend, shareblindfolded, trikedblindfolded, unknowblindfolded, vblindfolded, valentina, nappiblindfolded,
    virgin, deflorationblindfolded, white, wife, unwanted, black, creampieblindfolded, wifeblindfolded, wife,
    cock, switchedblindfolded, wife, does, not, know, she,
    is, sharedblindfolded, wife, does, not, know, who, is, fucking, her, thinks, its, her, husbandblindfolded,
    wife, doesnt, know, she, is, being, sharedblindfolded, wife, doesnt, know, stranger,
    fuckblindfolded, wife, doesnt, know, whos, fucking, herblindfolded, wife, fuckblindfolded, wife, fuckedblindfolded, wife, fucked,
    by, a, strangerblindfolded, wife, fucked, by, dogblindfolded, wife,
    fucked, by, strangerblindfolded, wife, gets, a,
    strangerblindfolded, wife, gets, dp, surpriseblindfolded, wife, gets, fuckedblindfolded, wife, gets, surprise,
    big, cock, friendblindfolded, wife, gets, surprise, second, cockblindfolded, wife,
    gets, swapped, out, by, her, husbandblindfolded, wife, getting,
    fucked, at, green, door, swinger, clubblindfolded, wife, got, sharedblindfolded, wife, guessing, who, cock, is

  4. My developer is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.
    I have always disliked the idea because of the costs. But he’s
    tryiong none the less. I’ve been using WordPress on several websites for about
    a year and am concerned about switching to another platform.
    I have heard very good things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress content into it?
    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  5. Hi there i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anywhere,
    when i read this post i thought i could also create comment due
    to this brilliant paragraph.

  6. I do not know whether it’s just me or if perhaps everyone else experiencing problems with your site.
    It looks like some of the written text on your content are running off the
    screen. Can someone else please provide feedback and
    let me know if this is happening to them as well? This might be a problem with my web
    browser because I’ve had this happen previously.
    Thanks

  7. Hi there, the whole thing is going well here and
    ofcourse every one is sharing facts, that’s in fact excellent, keep up writing.

  8. Have you ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is fundamental and everything. But think of if you added some great
    photos or videos to give your posts more, “pop”!
    Your content is excellent but with images and video clips,
    this blog could definitely be one of the very best in its field.
    Terrific blog!

  9. Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason seemed to be
    on the internet the easiest thing to be aware of. I say
    to you, I definitely get irked while people consider worries that they just
    don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as
    well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal.

    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  10. There’s definately a lot to find out about this
    subject. I really like all the points you’ve made.

  11. Thanks for sharing your thoughts about Poker Domino 99.
    Regards

  12. My brother recommended I may like this website. He used to be totally right.
    This submit truly made my day. You can not consider just how a lot
    time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

  13. I just like the valuable info you provide for your articles.
    I will bookmark your weblog and test again here regularly.
    I’m rather sure I’ll be told a lot of new stuff proper right here!

    Good luck for the following!

  14. hey there and thank you for your information – I have certainly
    picked up something new from right here. I did however expertise several technical points using
    this website, as I experienced to reload the site lots of times previous to I could get it to load correctly.

    I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and can damage your quality score if ads
    and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and
    can look out for a lot more of your respective fascinating content.
    Make sure you update this again soon.

  15. Aw, this was a really nice post. Spending some time and actual effort to generate a really good article… but what can I say… I hesitate a lot and never manage to get nearly anything done.

  16. Everyone loves it whenever people get together and share opinions.

    Great website, keep it up!

  17. Hello there! This post couldn’t be written any better!
    Reading this post reminds me of my old room mate!
    He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him.
    Fairly certain he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

  18. Simply want to say your article is as amazing. The clearness in your post is just excellent and i could
    assume you are an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your
    RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable
    work.

  19. When I initially commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get
    four e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove me
    from that service? Thanks a lot!

  20. I am regular reader, how are you everybody?
    This paragraph posted at this web page is actually pleasant.

    my webpage; 188bet

  21. Very good website you have here but I was curious about if you knew of any discussion boards that cover the same topics
    discussed here? I’d really like to be a part of online community where I can get comments from other experienced individuals that share the same interest.
    If you have any recommendations, please let me know.
    Appreciate it!

    Also visit my blog; https://www.globalaccountancyinstitute.com/groups/sex-drive-killers-5-factors-that-shrink/

  22. hey there and thank you for your information ?

    I’ve definitely picked up anything new from right here.
    I did however expertise several technical issues using
    this website, since I experienced to reload the web site
    lots of times previous to I could get it to load properly.

    I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading
    instances times will very frequently affect your placement in google and could damage
    your high quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.
    Anyway I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look out for much more of your respective intriguing content.
    Make sure you update this again soon.

    Look at my page … Extreme Keto BHB Reviews

  23. I wanted to thank you for this very good read!! I absolutely
    enjoyed every little bit of it. I have got you book marked to check out new things you post…

    Review my web site Keto XR Review

  24. Hello, I do believe your site may be having browser compatibility problems.
    Whenever I look at your site in Safari, it looks fine however, when opening in I.E., it’s got some
    overlapping issues. I merely wanted to provide you with a quick heads up!

    Other than that, fantastic website!

    Look into my web blog; Cyalix Review

  25. Hiya very nice website!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Wonderful .. I’ll bookmark your blog and
    take the feeds also…I’m satisfied to find a lot of useful info here in the post, we need develop extra strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing.

    Here is my homepage Cyalix

  26. Lovely just what I was searching for. Thanks to the author for taking
    his time on this one.

    Also visit my web site – BHB Fit Reviews

  27. Someone essentially assist to make significantly articles I would state.

    That is the first time I frequented your website page and up to now?
    I amazed with the analysis you made to make this particular submit amazing.
    Wonderful process!

    Here is my web page: Einkin Portable Air Conditioner

  28. Hi my family member! I want to say that this article is awesome, great written and come with almost all significant infos.
    I’d like to see extra posts like this .

    Also visit my homepage – Cannagenix CBD Review

  29. I think this is one of the most important info for me.
    And i’m glad reading your article. But wanna remark on some general things, The site style is ideal, the articles is really nice : D.
    Good job, cheers

    My website … LiboMax Reviews

  30. Great – I should certainly pronounce, impressed with
    your site. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs as well as related information ended up
    being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you
    know it in the least. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who
    add forums or something, website theme . a tones way for your customer to
    communicate. Nice task.

    Stop by my page; Prime Force Keto BHB Review

  31. Thanks so much for providing individuals with an exceptionally brilliant possiblity to read in detail
    from this blog. It really is so amazing and packed with a lot of fun for me
    and my office peers to search your site a minimum of 3 times
    per week to study the latest guidance you have.
    Of course, I am just usually fascinated concerning the powerful pointers you give.
    Certain 3 tips in this posting are clearly the most effective
    we have ever had.

    Look at my site … http://flowgenix.net/

  32. Fine way of explaining, and good paragraph to take information concerning
    my presentation topic, which i am going to convey in institution of
    higher education.

Deixe uma resposta

Fechar Menu
Top